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  • Writer's pictureMatilde Mantovani

Taurine, Immune Resilience, and the longevity factor Klotho: discover their impact on longevity

Stay young, stay informed: recent advancements in Longevity and Aging research


At Maximon, we are on a mission to constantly deliver the latest scientific advancements in Longevity and Aging. We carefully read and select the most relevant and impactful scientific publications to keep you informed about the rapidly evolving developments in this field. Get ready to discover the newest research on Longevity and Aging right here!



Taurine positively impacts aging markers


In a study conducted by Singh and colleagues, they examined different animals and discovered that the level of a specific amino acid called taurine, which is only partially synthesised by our bodies and needs to be integrated through the diet, decreased as the animals grew older.


The researchers explored the effects of adding taurine to the animals' diets and observed a positive impact on important markers of aging. These markers included reduced DNA damage, improved telomerase function, better mitochondrial performance, and decreased cellular aging. Additionally, they found that a decrease in taurine levels in humans was associated with age-related diseases. On the other hand, engaging in physical exercise resulted in an increase in taurine and its byproducts.


Parminder Singh et al.,Taurine deficiency as a driver of aging. Science 380, eabn9257 (2023)

Parminder Singh et al.,Taurine deficiency as a driver of aging. Science 380, eabn9257 (2023)


Furthermore, the study examined the influence of taurine supplementation on the lifespan of mice and the overall health of monkeys. The results revealed that adding taurine to the animals' diets increased the lifespan of mice and improved the overall health of monkeys, extending their healthy lifespan.


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Taurine deficiency as a driver for aging, Parminder Singh et al., Science 380, eabn9257 (2023)


 

Enhancing cognitive abilities: the longevity factor klotho in aged nonhuman primates


Cognition, which refers to our thinking and mental abilities, is considered a crucial and central aspect of brain function. As we age and face age-related diseases like Alzheimer's, cognition can decline and be negatively affected. Given the rapidly aging global population, addressing cognitive deficits has become a significant biomedical challenge. Effective pharmacological interventions are urgently needed to tackle this issue and support cognitive health in aging individuals.


Klotho is a highly conserved protein with anti-aging properties and organ protection. It naturally declines as we age, and Its deficiency is associated with human aging-related diseases, such as cancer, chronic kidney disease, diabetes and skin atrophy.


A joint study conducted by the Yale School of Medicine and the University of California, San Francisco, revealed that the longevity factor klotho enhances synaptic plasticity (connections between brain cells) and improves cognition. Based on these findings, Klotho treatment has been tested in aged nonhuman primates, where cognitive tests showed that a single administration of a low-dose, but not a high-dose, improved their memory. To conclude, the authors suggest that systemic low-dose klotho treatment may hold therapeutic potential for aging humans.



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Promoting longevity: the power of immune resilience against inflammation and infections


Why do some people remain healthier than others throughout their lives? What causes differences in lifespan, health status across age and susceptibility to infectious diseases? A recently published paper suggests that part of this advantage can be attributed to having a strong immune system that is resilient and functions optimally.


The study findings support a framework where immune resilience (IR) - defined as “the capacity to preserve and/or restore immune functions that promote disease resistance and longevity - is a distinct trait that goes beyond other factors like chronological age, epigenetic modifications, and inflammation-related aging processes. Individuals with optimal IR experience various health and survival benefits, regardless of age, sex, and underlying health conditions. However, exposure to frequent inflammatory stressors throughout life can lead to IR degradation in some people, resulting in health disadvantages.


Moreover, optimal immune resilience is observed across different age groups, more commonly found in females, and associated with a specific balance between immune competence and inflammation, linked to positive health outcomes dependent on the immune system.



Individuals with suboptimal or non-optimal IR can potentially regain optimal IR by reducing exposure to infectious and environmental stressors. IR metrics can serve as a valuable tool to assess immune health and predict disease risks and therapy responses.


The study also suggests that considering IR status when designing clinical trials can help account for variations in immunocompetence and inflammation, reducing confounding effects. Additionally, targeting the erosion of IR through specific strategies could potentially enhance health-span and lifespan, complementing senolytic agent investigations for age-associated pathologies. Importantly, it highlights the importance of personalised medicine, immune health therapies, and public health policies.



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